June 15, 2006 from the Baikonur Cosmodrome was launched Russian spacecraft Resource DK-1 with the devices Pamela and Arina on board. The spacecraft has a quasi-polar orbit with an inclination of 70.4 and a height of 300-600 km, orbital period 90 minutes of the satellite.
Pamela - international space experiment, whose main task is to measure the spectra of antiparticles in high-energy cosmic rays. In astrophysics institute has been designed and ground test equipment for a unique magnetic spectrometer Pamela, created an international collaboration of scientists from Russia, Italy, Sweden, Germany, the Russian- Italian program "Rome", and also designed and developed a number of detector and electronic systems that are part of the magnetic spectrometer. The results are of interest for models of generation and propagation of cosmic rays in the galaxy, exploring the nature of hypothetical massive particles, dark matter , solving the problem of the baryon asymmetry of the universe, and other fundamental problems in modern astrophysics.
The main purpose of the experiment Arina is to develop new methods of forecasting earthquakes space means. Method is based on bursts of high energy charged particles in near-Earth space, emerging a few hours before the coming earthquake.
Resource DK-1 spacecraft
The experiment was prepared at the Institute of Astrophysics (INCOS) Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI).
Besides these tasks, spectrometers, Pamela and Arina also recorded high energy charged component of solar cosmic rays (SCR), which accelerated in the active explosive processes on the Sun (solar flares). Currently it is the only joint precision flow measurement SCR in such a wide energy range (for example, protons from ~ 45 MeV to tens of GeV).
In the period from February 1 to April 15, 2014 spectrometers in near space recorded increases in several streams of solar high energy cosmic rays resulting from solar flares (including a strong class X).
Time profiles of the intensity of galactic and solar protons with energies 45 ÷ 55 MeV, 100 MeV and 145 ÷ 400 ÷ 540 MeV (energy intervals chosen for clarity) are shown in the figure. Moments solar flares that occurred 15, 20, February 25 and March 30, indicated by arrows next to that specified class of events: a series of outbreaks of class M1.0 -M2.3, M3.0, X4.9, X1.0, respectively.
The intensity of galactic and solar cosmic rays in the period from 1 February to 15 April 2014 according spectrometers "PA" Pamela and Arina.
Thin horizontal lines in the figure shows the level of background - dominant in the quiet period of solar activity of the galactic component of cosmic rays. A few hours after outbreaks spectrometers Pamela and Arina recorded increase in the flux of solar protons over the background.
Found that in a flash February 25 the maximum energy of accelerated protons reached ~ 600 MeV . Other components of solar cosmic rays (helium nuclei and other elements) are not registered.
As can be seen from the figure, a few hours after the acceleration on the Sun, the particles reach the Earth's orbit and recorded instruments in Earth orbit. Information about the flow of solar high-energy particles is useful for prediction of perturbations of Earth's magnetosphere, measuring radiation levels for low-orbit spacecraft, as well as for the fundamental study of active explosive processes on the Sun.
Resource DK-1 description
To date, for the duration of the measurements recorded in orbit for more than two and a half billion events, received more than 16 terabytes of experimental information.
Currently, a detailed analysis of experimental data in order to obtain detailed composition and energy spectra of solar particles that will give important new information about the physical processes on the Sun, the mechanisms of generation of high-energy solar cosmic rays and their propagation in the interplanetary space.
Flying Resource DK-1 and measurements on a magnetic spectrometer Pamela and spectrometer Arina progress.
ROSCOSMOS Press Release: http://www.federalspace.ru/20469/
Images, Text, Credits: Roscosmos press service / ROSCOSMOS / Translation: Orbiter.ch Aerospace.